Brute Polak Stereotype Strikes Again
Shared Heroes and Martyrs Deserve, and Demand, Better of Us
spectacular view splayed itself out before us like a brazen artist's model. High
in the hills, the carefully cultivated backyard, with its quaint apple tree,
was the last horizontal earth before a dizzying drop hundreds of feet to the
flatlands. A carpet of lights twinkling in the darkness gave way to the
lustrous waters of the San Francisco Bay. In the distance rose the power and
poetry of the Golden Gate Bridge; beyond stretched the Pacific and no land till
Japan. This evening's hostess, an heiress and descendant of minor European
nobility, was so Politically Correct she had converted to Islam. And Quakerism.
And Buddhism. And Neo-Paganism. I was dazzled. I had left my working class, New
Jersey town with its domestic violence and cancer-causing toxic waste. I was
among the elite.
guest, Neil, arrived. After learning my name, Neil told a series of off-color
Polak jokes. For me, Neil's jokes were the sound of a needle's harsh scratch
suddenly interrupting a recording of Mozart. How could he tell such ugly jokes
at such an elegant gathering?
come on," Neil snapped. "Polaks were never lynched." Neil
elaborated. He was Jewish. He knew Polaks were the world's worst anti-Semites.
Brute Polak stereotype matters to you, including those of you who are not
Polish or Jewish. Evidence of the Brute's necessity is his ubiquity. Stereotypes
of Poles and other "Bohunks" – that is, Eastern European, Christian,
peasant-descent populations – as brutes, as primitive, violent, ignorant and
hateful, are found throughout Western cultures. They're in movies, television
shows, comedy routines, fiction and non-fiction, scholarly and popular books, including
books used to teach young people about the Holocaust, school curricula and museum
exhibits. Even elites who would stop their fellows in mid-sentence if they ever
uttered the n-word eagerly host anti-Polish material. Hundreds of examples of
stereotypical depictions of Bohunk brutes can be found in my book and on my
blog. If the Brute Polak didn't matter, he would not be everywhere.
is essentially a brute. By "essentially" I mean that brutishness is
his inescapable essence. Perhaps the most pithy encapsulation of this
stereotype is a phrase that first gained international fame when spoken by the
late Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir in 1989. "Poles suckle
anti-Semitism with their mother's milk." This phrase gained attention
again recently when it was repeated by current Israeli Foreign Minister Yisrael
Katz. I have met several Jews, in Poland, the US, and Israel, who have insisted
to me that I can't possibly be the child of a Slovak mother and Polish father
who were both Catholic. Maybe I was adopted. Maybe my parents disguised their Jewish
identity. Indeed, I have had close Jewish friends for decades who have said
this to me, repeatedly. "You can't possibly be a Polish Catholic. You
read. You write. You have a PhD. You don't hate Jews. Your ancestors must have
been Polish Jews." These folks have actually insisted that I submit my DNA
for analysis in order to prove their belief that I'm not a Polish Catholic.
Their conclusion is not that their prejudiced concept of Polish identity is erroneous.
Rather, their conclusion is that because I do not match their stereotypical
image of a Polak, I could not possibly be of Polish Catholic descent.
existence of the Brute Polak Stereotype does not mean that Poles have not
committed horrible crimes. Poles have. In discussions of Polish-Jewish
relations, two atrocities come up repeatedly: the Jedwabne massacre and the Kielce
Pogrom. Both are especially nauseating and heart-rending. In one, Poles burned
Jews alive. In another, Poles stoned Jews to death. Both of these crimes were
committed during the World War II era, one during, and one after, the war.
Neither is unique. Poles committed many such crimes against Jews. Further,
anti-Semitism is part of Polish culture, just as it is part of world culture.
Nor has it been defeated. In 2015, for example, protestors
burned an effigy of a Jew in Wroclaw, Poland. Such spectacles
disgust and dismay decent people. How could there be anti-Semites in Poland,
the land of Auschwitz? If Poles do these disgusting things, why bother talking
analogy may help the reader to understand. In 2008, financier Bernard L. Madoff
was arrested. He would eventually "plead
guilty to 11 federal felonies, including securities fraud, wire
fraud, mail fraud, money laundering, making false statements, perjury, theft
from an employee benefit plan, and making false filings with the SEC." Madoff
cheated investors, sometimes of their life savings. His victims include Holocaust
survivor and Nobel Laureate Elie Wiesel, filmmaker and philanthropist Steven
Spielberg, and many Jewish schools, synagogues, and charities. Investigators
say that Madoff had been cheating his clients for over thirty years.
Prosecutors estimated Madoff's fraud at $65 billion dollars.
viewing the story through the lens of the age-old Shylock stereotype would
simply say, "What do you expect? Jews are greedy, cheap, and
criminal." Decent and responsible people do not talk about Madoff this
way. They don't because they know that the Shylock stereotype has been deployed
to facilitate expulsions and mass murder. Jews' status as moneylenders played a
role in their expulsion
from England in 1290. Nazi
propaganda declared that "Money is the God of the Jews."
Mindful of this hideous history, decent people speak carefully when speaking of
Bernard Madoff. Our culture does everything it can to facilitate such caution.
In 2010, The Atlantic ran an essay by
Michael Kinsley entitled "How
to Think About Jewish Bankers." The goal of the essay was to
nudge readers away from thinking of financial crime as a Jewish monopoly, and
away from thinking of Jews as essentially criminal and money-obsessed.
rather, is a non-bigoted way to think about Madoff. For a variety of cultural
and geopolitical reasons, going back millennia (discussed here),
Jews are overrepresented in finance. This isn't because of any putative Jewish
"essence," but, rather, because of the same kinds of historical
forces that shape us all. Given that Jews are overrepresented in finance, Jews
will be overrepresented in financial crime, but they will also be
overrepresented in philanthropy. Scholar Hanna
Shaul Bar Nissim has conclusively demonstrated that American Jews
donate much more to charity than Protestants or Catholics.
2005, Dennis Kozlowski was convicted for stealing $100 million from Tyco. His
penchant for accessories like a $6,000 shower curtain earned him the epithet
of avarice." When researching my book, I compared accounts of
Kozlowski's crimes with those of Jewish financial criminals. Commentators
rarely mentioned that Kozlowski was a Polish-American Catholic. Writers almost
always mentioned that Jewish financial criminals were Jewish. We process
reality using our culturally mediated prejudices as filter. Because of the
Shylock stereotype, so deeply ingrained in our culture, the Jewish identity of
a financial criminal gets more attention than the Polish Catholic identity of a
the same token, authors in a variety of disciplines hold up Jedwabne as an
archetypal atrocity, and the Poles who committed this crime as archetypal
haters. In these tellings, no factors precipitate Polish atrocities; Poles
murder even as they breathe. Poles, treated as universal exemplars of hatred
and sadism, kill only "because they could," in the words of George Will.
Will and other commentators' treatment of Poles and Jedwabne to another
massacre, one, in its own way, every bit as horrific as Jedwabne. One late
summer day in 1857, a group of men, according to a pre-arranged plan, and at a
pre-arranged signal, turned to the person standing next to them and shot that
person in cold blood. Some killers used Bowie knives. The victims were farm
families from Arkansas, traveling to California in search of a better life. Men,
women, and children were killed. The killers were Mormons, America's "nice"
long fought against accepting guilt for the Mountain Meadows Massacre,
even though the mastermind was the adopted son of "Mormon Moses" Brigham
Young. Though many killed, only one of the killers ever faced justice. When
commentators discuss Mountain Meadows, they struggle to discern what would
cause "nice" Mormons to commit such brutal murders. The Mormons had
been persecuted and they were afraid, some
argue. All too often, no such struggle to explain atrocity occurs when
commentators describe crimes committed by Poles. Poles are essentially brutes.
They kill "because they can." If a Pole doesn't hate Jews and doesn't
kill, she must submit to DNA analysis to prove she is really Polish.
is far away and its actual realities are of little interest to most Americans. For
seventy years of the twentieth century, Poland was controlled by totalitarian
powers eager to misrepresent it to the world. Too often, democracies played
along, as when Roosevelt and Churchill lied
about the Katyn massacre. Even Christopher Hitchens,
celebrated as a courageous truth teller, got into the act. It's easy to
misrepresent Poles and Poland to service the Brute Polak stereotype. Mind-searing,
horrific events like the Jedwabne and Kielce atrocities are invoked. Just when
the audience is prostrate with tears and horror, the voice-of-God narrator
intrudes. "These are Poles. This is what Poles do. This is an expression
of their essence. We must condemn Poles qua Poles in order to signal to
everyone around us that we are utterly apart from them. We don't do things like
this. This atrocity exists on a different plane than that we inhabit."
facts disappear. I have read numerous accounts of the Jedwabne massacre that
erase the following. The surrounding area had been invaded and occupied by a genocidal
Soviet Russian presence previous to the subsequent genocidal German Nazi
presence, under whose auspices the massacre took place. The Russians and
Germans did not innovate their genocidal intentions against Poles in 1939.
Rather, Russians and Germans had participated in wiping Poland off the map in
three partitions, 1772-95. Under these partitions, Poles were, at times,
forbidden to build permanent structures on their own land, forbidden to speak
their own language in school, and hanged and driven into exile en masse.
Bismarck famously wrote of the Poles, "Personally, I sympathize with their
position, but if we want to exist, we cannot do other than extirpate them. A
wolf is not to blame that God made him as he is; which does not mean that we
shouldn't shoot him to death whenever possible."
rounded Poles up without warning, packed them into cattle cars, and sent them
to Siberia, many never to return. No one knows how many; estimates range
between hundreds of thousands and a million. Areas where Poles had lived for
hundreds of years are today free of Poles and outside of Poland's Stalin-imposed
postwar borders. German Nazi Einsatzgruppen shot Polish professors, teachers,
and priests. Most prisoners in Auschwitz
were, initially, Poles.
and Russians both played the age old game of "divide et impera."
Those pushing the Brute Polak stereotype never mention that not only were
Catholics set against Jews and vice versa, but Polish nobility were set against
Polish peasants. Long before Jedwabne, there was the Szela jacquerie, in which
Austrian colonizers paid Polish peasants in salt for the decapitated heads of
Polish nobility. Historians acknowledge that many Jews did respond differently
to the Soviet invasion than did Polish non-Jews, and that some Jews did
participate in Soviet mistreatment of non-Jewish Poles. In addition to these
immediate factors, centuries of history made Polish-Jewish relations in Poland
unique and not easily understood by outsiders. Jews in Poland often occupied a
middleman minority status. Though they were a minority, Jewish arendators had,
at times, the power of life and death over Polish peasants. Jews, at times, and
in some places, had a monopoly on the sale of liquor. And there were Jews who
expressed a desire to remain significantly apart from Polish peasantry. Again,
I have read accounts of the Jedwabne massacre that make it sound as if Poles, enjoying
lives comparable to that of modern American suburbanites, just for the heck of
it, decided one fine day to round up and incinerate their Jewish neighbors. Real
understanding demands that we recognize that if we were in the shoes of the Poles,
some of our number, too, would become the kind of monsters who commit atrocities.
Just as, in the US, at one time, even "nice" Mormons did.
strategist's Karl Rove's famous tactic: to defeat your opponent, attack his
strengths, not his weaknesses. Purveyors of the Brute Polak stereotype work
hard to discredit some of the most heroic human beings who ever walked this
earth: Polish non-Jews who rescued Jews during World War II. Rove's strategy
was on display in a recent article, "Anti-Semitism
and Poland’s Two Faces: What A Dedicated, Nationwide Educational Campaign May
Possibly Cure." The title is instructive. Poland exists only in
relation to Jews. Poles are mostly anti-Semitic, but some Poles are good. The
rest are diseased and need a "cure," administered by the author. The
author describes a good Pole: Jan Karski. What makes Karski good? He doesn't
identify with his Polishness; rather, "'I myself became a Jew' … he was
awarded honorary citizenship of Israel … 'This is the proudest and most
meaningful day in my life … [I have] become an Israeli.'"
case the import of these words is lost on the reader, imagine an article
alleging that all Jews are guilty – or sick – but one Jew is good – the one who
announces "I have become an Episcopalian, and this is the proudest day of
my life." To attribute Jewish identity to the author's one good Pole is to
repeat the fallacy of my friends who insist that I take a DNA test to prove my
"Jewish" ancestry. Those who are good cannot be Polish.
make stereotypes believable, one must eliminate key details. Left out of this
account of Jan Karski: he narrowly escaped being bound, shot in the back of the
head, and dumped into a mass grave in the Soviet Russian action at Katyn
forest. After this escape, Karski joined the active Polish anti-Nazi resistance.
He was captured and tortured so savagely he attempted suicide by slitting his
wrists. Karski escaped from the Germans as he had previously escaped from the
Russians. He continued his underground work. When he traveled to the West to
bring news of the Holocaust to Roosevelt and Churchill, he had teeth pulled so
that his mouth would swell and he'd have an excuse not to talk to Germans en
route. He was afraid his Polish accent would seal his doom. He also had to be
careful to disguise the scars on his wrist that might identify him as a wanted
man. Why did the author eliminate these details from his mention of Jan Karski?
Perhaps because to report them would bring home to the reader: heroic Poles who
rescued Jews did so with the barrel of a Nazi gun pressed against their temples.
author implies that Karski was sui generis, that is unlike any other Pole, and
that Karski did what he did because he identified as Jewish rather than Polish.
In fact Karski was a devout Catholic, one of many Polish Catholics who rescued
Jews not in spite of their Polishness and Catholicism, but because of both.
and Wiktoria Ulma were devout Catholic and Polish farmers. In Jozef's Bible, he
underlined the words, "You must love the Lord your God with all your
heart, with all your soul, with all your strength, and with all your mind, and
your neighbor as yourself." "A Samaritan traveler who came upon him
was moved with compassion when he saw him: He went up to him and bandaged his
wounds, pouring oil and wine on them. He then lifted him onto his own mount and
took him to an inn and looked after him."
Nazis made clear that any Poles who offered any aid to any Jew, even in so
small a gesture as a glass of water, incurred the death penalty for themselves
and their family. The Ulmas, perhaps inspired by the above-mentioned underlined
passages, took in eight Jews. For this, Nazis murdered the Ulmas and their six
children. Wiktoria was nine months pregnant when Nazis shot her to death.
of the Brute Polak stereotype hate one statistic. Yad Vashem honors non-Jews
who rescued Jews during the Holocaust. Poles are the largest group of so
honored rescuers. Poles rescued Jews while living under the harshest occupation
in Europe. They rescued Jews in spite of the toughest conditions. While Jews in
other countries were more likely to be assimilated, and, thus, easier to hide,
many Polish Jews were native Yiddish speakers. Poles were allowed only
starvation rations. Rescuers had to hide, feed, and discard the waste of their
charges, all while under the surveillance of Nazis who called them "Polish
cite interwar anti-Semitism in Poland. This anti-Semitism is not best
understood as a Polish or a Catholic phenomenon; rather, it is best understood
as a predictable, universal, human phenomenon, a toxic outgrowth of a virtual
caste system. Scholars like Edna Bonacich, Thomas Sowell, and Amy Chua have
shown that when colonized, indigenous people are released from colonization,
they undergo a period of intense nationalism that often involves violence
against middleman minority populations. Such violence has been unleashed
against Chinese by Muslim Malaysians and Indonesians, and against Indians in East
Africa. America itself saw such violence during the L.A. Riots, when African
Americans targeted Korean shopkeepers.
piece selectively mentions the quotas in interwar Poland that
limited university places for Jews. What the author does not mention is that the
vast majority of Polish non-Jews were peasants, often illiterate and just
emerging from semi-feudal status. Jews, on the other hand, were vastly
overrepresented among urban doctors, lawyers, business owners, and other
white-collar professionals. An excellent account of every day life for the
average Polish peasant during this era can be found in Jan Slomka's From Serfdom to Self-Government: Memoirs of a
Polish Village Mayor. Reading this poignant memoir is like reading about
African Americans emerging from Jim Crow. In fact Booker T. Washington, a
former slave, made that very comparison in his 1912 book, The Man Farthest Down. Washington wrote of Poland, "there was
much the same life that I had known and lived among the Negro farmers in
Alabama ... I should have liked to have gone farther ... and looked deeper into
the life and learned more of the remarkable struggle which the Polish people
... are making to preserve the Polish nationality and improve the conditions of
the Polish people ... I am convinced that anyone who studies the movements and
progress of the Negroes in America will find much that is interesting by way of
comparison in the present situation of the Polish people and that of the
American Negroes." Washington noted the status of Jews as middleman
minority. "Whenever in Poland money changes hands, a Jew is always there
to take charge of it." As mentioned above, there are complex historical
reasons why Washington would conclude this; the curious can see my comments here.
Purveyors of the Bieganski stereotype selectively mention interwar university
quotas and want you to imagine all-powerful Poles stepping on powerless Jews.
The real situation was closer to the dilemma Americans confront when
contemplating contemporary American university admissions quotas, that
systematically turn away many qualified Asian American applicants, in favor of
African Americans and Hispanics. The point is not that either system is just;
rather, the point is that both systems are expressions of flawed human attempts
to wrestle with historic inequities.
cannot assess the extent to which the outbreak of anti-Semitism in the interwar
period affected the number of Poles who collaborated with the Nazis. There is
an historical trend, though, that must be factored in to any such discussion.
Jan Mosdorf was an interwar Polish anti-Semite. Nevertheless, he rejected
Nazism. In Auschwitz, where Mosdorf was imprisoned, he was killed for helping
Jews. Cardinal August Hlond is notorious for an interwar pastoral letter
criticizing Jews. The Cahiers du
Témoignage Chrétien was a French Catholic underground publication that
urged people to aid Jews and resist Germans. It relied on Hlond
for eyewitness Holocaust accounts. Hlond condemned the Vatican for its
"silence" on what the Nazis were doing to Poland. SS Chief Heinrich Himmler
ordered Hlond's arrest. The Gestapo offered him a chance for power and freedom,
if only he would urge Poles to unite with Germans in their fight against their
common enemy, the Soviet Union. Hlond declined to cooperate.
could name other examples of persons who either self-identified as anti-Semites
in the interwar period, or whom others identify as Polish anti-Semites, who
resisted the Nazis and aided Jews. One cannot draw a straight line between
Polish interwar anti-Semitism, as blameworthy as it was, and the Holocaust.
can one draw a straight line, as too many attempt to do, between Polish folkloric
material and the Holocaust. Polish culture includes many jokes, songs, and
tales that depict Jews as greedy and cliquish. If one argues that these
cultural products, as distasteful as they are, prompted genocide, what is one
to do with the equal and opposite stereotyping among Jews? Polish Jewish
culture is replete with jokes, songs, and tales that depict Polish non-Jews as
stupid, unclean, idol-worshipping drunks. Thus the Yiddish folk song, "Shikker
iz der Goy," "The non-Jew [usually a Polish peasant] is a
drunk." Thus the phrase "poylishe kop," or "Polish
head," for a stupid person. Misguided troublemakers do try to draw a
straight line between contemptuous Jewish stereotypes and communist murder and
torture of Poles, murder and torture that was often carried out by Jewish
communists. Decent people denounce such attempts. Decent people should step up
and do the same when Polish folk culture is conflated with Nazism. All people
stereotype their neighbors. People rarely commit genocide. We need to
understand what drives people to genocide.
previously-cited article that despairs that Poles can ever be cured of
anti-Semitism insists that Poles must be educated about what brutes they are,
and taught not to be brutes. This recommendation dishonors heroes whose heroism
we will never be called on to match. Poland was an unimaginably grim place in
1946. The Nazi occupation was over, but the Soviets had arrived, and would not
leave till 1989. Warsaw was in ruins. Polish priests, teachers, doctors –
anyone with an education – had been purged. Heroic Poles who resisted the Nazis
were rounded up by Soviets, smeared as "spittle-flecked dwarves,"
tortured, killed, and buried in unmarked graves. And, in that Boschian
landscape of hell on earth, Poles, many Catholic, founded The All-Polish
Anti-Racist League. Haven't heard of it? You are not alone. Wladylsaw
Bartoszewski, one of the founders, wrote,
are no accounts in histories of the All-Polish Anti-Racist League, founded in
1946 … it is a waste of time to search scholarly works for even a brief mention
of the League, its origins and public activities, or the contents of the
League's publication, Prawo Czlowieka
(The Rights of Man.) The terrible
experience of the war years and the dreadful crime committed against Polish
Jews … have pushed actions and phenomena which were, in a sense, marginal to
the whole picture, to one side…scholars have not been interested in its
existence … Acts of repression, violence, and terror, mass arrests,
deportations, bloody confrontations claiming thousands of dead and injured,
were an everyday occurrence, particularly in the first year [of Soviet occupation].
Through ruthless political and police methods, a new political order and system
was introduced, which was rejected by a significant part of society … the
tragedy of the genocide of the Jews was, after all, a great psychological shock
for many Poles … Both in the Polish press and on the radio at that time there
was no lack of voices to oppose these tragic incidents, and the recent
suffering and extermination of Jewish society in Poland were also mentioned.
Articles, memoirs, and references to the subject can be found in the first post
war dailies Robotnik, Dziennik Ludowy,
Gazeta Ludowa, Kurier Codzienny, in the weeklies Nowa Epoka, Odrodzenie, and particularly in the Krakow Tygodnik Powszechny."
a co-founder of the league, was arrested by Soviets for his trouble. You can
read more about the league here.
Yes, decent Poles resist anti-Semitism. Yes, under the worst conditions, decent
Poles helped, published, protested. There are other heroes, other initiatives,
other publications, decade after decade. Before you succumb to the Brute Polak
stereotype, educate yourself.
Gross does not stand out in a crowd. He is different from other New Jersey men,
though. All four of Otto's grandparents, Germans living outside of Germany,
were interned in various Soviet Russian concentration camps. Three died. Otto's
paternal grandfather simply walked away, gambling that the guards would not
waste a bullet on him. He walked from Siberia to Germany. Otto's father,
Gustav, joined the Nazi brown shirts in the 1930s. Gustav was a hungry teen.
The Nazis fed him. Gustav served in the Afrika Korps and on the Eastern Front.
He won two Iron Crosses, second class.
has had to wrestle, all his life, with the legacy of being the son of a Nazi.
You can read his essay, "Ripples of Sin," here.
Otto expresses amazement to me that the guilt for the Holocaust is migrating
from the Nazis, where it properly belongs, to the essential Brute Polak.
grew up with my parents' stories of the rise of Nazism and their acceptance of
the hate and waste Nazism promoted. I heard firsthand accounts. I'm still
confused how people came to think that Poland played any role in fascism and
what happened to Jews, Poles, Gays, intellectuals and the other victims of Nazi
Germany. Poland was danced all over. Incidents have no doubt happened, but
there is no historical or rational evidence that Poland was anything more than
the victim along with Jews and other groups."
said, above, that the Brute Polak matters even to people who aren't Polish or
Jewish. There are many reasons that people deploy the Brute Polak stereotype. I
argue that one reason is that there has been a trend, in recent years, to
conflate Nazism with Christianity. Mid-century Germany was famously a secular,
modern society. Poland is associated with Catholicism. This issue is too
complicated to address here, but I invite readers to visit "Against
Identifying Nazism with Christianity," here.
This rewriting of one of history's most notorious crimes matters to everyone.
not enough for me, a Catholic of Polish and Slovak descent, to condemn the
Brute Polak stereotype. I must say more. Along with countless other Poles and
persons of Polish descent living around the world, I have condemned Polish anti-Semitism
repeatedly in my book and on my blog, e.g. here
support Israel. I do not hold Jews qua Jews responsible for the
Brute Polak stereotype. This stereotype has been spread by persons of every
ethnicity, including Poles. I have repeatedly said that it is Poles'
responsibility to tell their own story, in curricula, popular culture products,
and mass media; see here.
I acknowledge that anti-Semitism is a feature of Polish culture, and I have
joined with other Poles who condemn Polish anti-Semites and Polish
anti-Semitism. I've paid the price; Polish nationalists have denounced
me as an anti-Polish conspirator. I invite persons of courage and conscience to
join me and reject the Brute Polak stereotype. I invite Front Page Magazine to review Bieganski,
and Front Page readers to read it. Interested
persons can get an idea of the book from this video. From
a dimension where ethnic identity ceases to matter, our shared heroes and
martyrs are watching us. We cannot rescue them from the horrors they
experienced in the past, horrors that can hurt them no more. We can never be as
heroic as they. We can at least step up, and condemn all stereotyping. It's
what they want us to do.
You can also read this article at Front Page Magazine here, where it is a part of an ongoing dialogue.
'"Oh, come on," Neil snapped. "Polaks were never lynched." Neil elaborated. He was Jewish. He knew Polaks were the world's worst anti-Semites.'
Neil should learn about the Poles' January 1863 Insurrection, which occurred at the same time as the American Civil War. In the aftermath, plenty of Poles were lynched by Hangman Mikhail Muraviev.
They did not call him Hangman for nothing!
People in the West know Jedwabne crime because of book by JT Gross “Neighbors”. The Jedwabne crime was a little detail of 1941 Summer but the book is terribly effective as a propaganda weapon, it doesn’t contain boring academic details, it’s rather a Bible-like condemnation of Jedwabne Poles. The book contains obvious errors, eg. number of victims wasn’t 1600 but about 350. In Jedwabne region about 30 pogroms were organized, at least two of them comparable to the Jedwabne crime – Wasosz and Radzilow, but only few people remember the vicitms of them dominated by Gross writing. According to “Intimate Violence” by Kopstein and Wittenberg more than 200 pogroms took place in Eastern Poland. I don’t have the book, so I don’t know how many of the pogroms were organized by Ukrainians, probably more than half. Kopstein and Wittenberg claim, that the pogroms in Eastern Poland were organized in places, where Jewish parties were active before the war. Similar conflicts exist in many countries, where a strong minority lives. Kopstein and Wittenberg don’t analyse a much more cruel Ukrainian-Polish conflict in the region, in which about 100 000 Poles and thousands of Ukrainians were killed.ReplyDelete
The Jedwabne crime was a minor detail of Sommer 1941 pogroms which took place in lands occupied by Soviet Union from Lithuania to Romania, probably also in Latvia. Tens of thousands of Jews were murdered, only a small part of them by Poles. But there are no impressive books about Kaunas or Lwow pogroms. There exists a partial description of the pogroms in Polish “W cieniu gigantow”, not translated into English.
and again and again and again. I am busy commenting on your article and supporting comments. It is certainly having an effect!ReplyDelete
Sue thank you very much for going over to Front Page and commenting there. I'm sorry that someone told you that you should not be allowed to vote. That was obnoxious and unnecessary. Nothing that you said indicated that you should not be allowed to vote.ReplyDelete
Others might want to check out the comments section on Front Page, just to see what's being said these days.
Yes that chap is very busy supporting all the points you made Danusha!Delete
Frontpage is also very anti-Islam,interestingly. Imho we Poles should stay away from this quarrel-why on earth should we help a West that demeans us all the while they at least fear Muslims? Also: lets never again import minorities that decline to assimilate. Never again. In Germany,France,Sweden, Muslims will become what Jews were in Poland- a foreign entity. Mark my wordsReplyDelete
Yeah, sure, just like muslims, Jews terrorized and kill europeans, imposed their law, massively rape european girls.ReplyDelete